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How has ocean acidity changed over time?

This series of maps tracks the changes in ocean acidity since before the start of the Industrial Revolution in the 1700s to the 1990s.

The estimated annual mean sea surface pH is calculated from fields of dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity from the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) climatology; and temperature and salinity from the World Ocean Atlas (2005) climatology using Richard Zeebe's csys package. Note that the GLODAP climatology is missing data in certain oceanic provinces including the Arctic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, the Mediterranean Sea and the Malay Archipelago.

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Frozen Oceans Science 11 14 Thumb

Science | Ages 11 - 14

Frozen Oceans

The Frozen Oceans Science resources introduce working scientifically concepts and skills to 11-14-year-olds through enquiry-based lessons which replicate work done by field scientists in the Arctic.

Frozen Oceans Geography 14 16 Thumb

Geography | Ages 14 - 16

Frozen Oceans

This Frozen Oceans education resource includes two data case studies that introduce students to ocean acidification and sea ice thickness. The core of each case study are data sets from real expeditions.

Frozen Oceans Science 14 16 Thumb

Science | Ages 14 - 16

Frozen Oceans

This Frozen Oceans unit outlines the research carried out by the Catlin Arctic Surveys and can be used in teaching the carbon cycle, ocean acidification and its impact on the Arctic ecosystem.

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